What is a Kidney Stone?
A kidney stone is a hard object that is made from chemicals in the urine. There are four types of kidney stones: calcium oxalate, uric acid, struvite, and cystine. A kidney stone may be treated with shockwave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, or nephrolithotripsy. Common symptoms of patients having kidney stones include severe pain in the lower back, blood in your urine, nausea, vomiting, fever, and chills, or urine that smells bad or looks cloudy. Dr. Abhijit Gokhale provides Kidney Stone Treatment in Pune and Urinary Stone Treatment in Pune. He has comprehensive experience of more than 20 years in the field of Urology.
Urine has various wastes dissolved in it. When there is too much waste in too little liquid, crystals begin to form. The crystals attract other elements and join together to form a solid that will get larger unless it is passed out of the body with the urine. Usually, these chemicals are eliminated in the urine by the body’s master filter: the kidney. In most people, having enough liquid washes them out or other chemicals in urine stop a stone from forming. The stone-forming chemicals are calcium, oxalate, urate, cystine, xanthine, and phosphate.
Causes of a Kidney Stone
Kidney stones usually have no single cause, although several factors increase your chances of having a kidney stone. Possible causes drinking less water, exercise either too much or too little, overweight or eating food with lots of salt or sugar. Infections and family history might also be important for some cases.
Kidney stones form when the urine contains more crystal-forming substances like calcium, oxalate, and uric acid than the fluid in it can dilute. At the same time, urine may lack substances that prevent these crystals from forming, which makes it a safe haven for kidney stones to form. Possible causes include drinking too little water, exercise (too much or too little), obesity, weight loss surgery, or eating food with too much salt or sugar. Infections and family history might be important in some people.
What are the different types of Kidney Stones?
Kidney stones come in many different types and colors. How you treat them and stop new stones from forming depends on the type of stone you have.
Calcium stones are the most common type of kidney stone. There are two types of calcium stones: calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. Calcium oxalate is by far the most common type of calcium stone. Some people have too much calcium in their urine, raising their risk of calcium stones. Even with normal amounts of calcium in the urine, calcium stones may form for other reasons.
Uric acid stones
Uric acid is a waste product that comes from chemical changes in the body. Uric acid crystals do not dissolve well in acidic urine and instead will form a uric acid stone. Having acidic urine may come from:
- Being overweight
- Chronic diarrhea
- Type 2 diabetes (high blood sugar)
- A diet that is high in animal protein and low in fruits and vegetables
Struvite stones are not a common type of stone. These stones are related to chronic urinary tract infections (UTIs). Some bacteria make the urine less acidic and more basic or alkaline. Magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) stones form in alkaline urine. These stones are often large, with branches, and they often grow very fast.
People who get chronic UTIs, such as those with long-term tubes in their kidneys or bladders, or people with poor bladder emptying due to neurologic disorders (paralysis, multiple sclerosis, and spina bifida) are at the highest risk for developing these stones.
Cystine is an amino acid that is in certain foods; it is one of the building blocks of protein. Cystinuria (too much cystine in the urine) is rare, inherited metabolic disorder. It is when the kidneys do not reabsorb cystine from the urine. When high amounts of cystine are in the urine, it causes stones to form. Cystine stones often start to form in childhood.
Types of Kidney Stone Treatments
- ESWL (Extracorporeal stun wave lithotripsy)
In ESWL, a series of shock waves are created by a machine called a lithotripter. The shock waves are engaged by x-beam onto the kidney stone and travel into the body through skin and tissue, arriving at the stone where they break it into little parts. For half a month following treatment, those little pieces are dropped off the body in the pee.
- PCNL (Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy)
PCNL is a technique used to remove certain stones in the kidney or upper ureter (the tube that drains urine from the kidney to the bladder) that are too large for other forms of stone treatment such as shock wave lithotripsy or ureteroscopy. You will need a short (2 or 3 day) hospitalization. You may be off work for a week or so. Depending on the position of the stone, the procedure is completed in 20 to 45 minutes. The aim is to remove all the stones so that none are left to pass through the urinary tract. It is performed in the hospital under general anesthesia, meaning you will be asleep during the procedure and not feel any pain.
- RIRS (Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery)
RIRS may be done to remove a stone. The stone is seen through the scope and can then be manipulated or crushed by an ultrasound probe or evaporated by a laser probe or grabbed by small forceps. Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is a technique for doing medical procedures inside the kidney utilizing a viewing tube called a fiberoptic endoscope.
In RIRS the degree is put through the urethra (the urinary opening) into the bladder and afterward through the ureter into the pee gathering some portion of the kidney. The extension subsequently is moved retrograde (up the urinary tract framework) to inside the kidney (intrarenal). The stone is seen through the degree and would then be able to control or squashed by an ultrasound test or vanished by a laser test or retrieved by little forceps, and so on. Pelviolithotomy is the removal of a kidney stone by the surgical incision of the renal pelvis.
About Dr. Abhijit Gokhale
Dr. Abhijit Gokhale – M.S (General Surgery); DNB (Urology) is a Urologist, Andrologist, and Urological Surgeon in Shivajinagar, Pune, and has experience of over 20 years in the field of Urology. Dr. Abhijit Gokhale practices at Sanjeevan Surgery in Shivajinagar, Pune. He has successfully completed MBBS in 1988 and MS – General Surgery in 1993 from the distinguished B.J. Medical College, Pune as well as DNB – Urology/Genito – Urinary Surgery from the National Board of Examination in 2000.
He is a member of the Urological Society of India (USI), Urology Society of Pune, Pune Surgical Society, and Indian Medical Association (IMA).
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